Women’s experiences of political activities and persecution may differ from those of men. The
concept of both politics and persecution have historically been interpreted by States through a
framework of male experiences, thus often excluding women’s political opinions on gender roles
as well as acts of gender-based violence and/or discrimination by either the State or non-State
actors. Without integrating a gender perspective throughout the asylum process, the adherence
to a male adult heterosexual norm risks resulting in many women and girls, including lesbian
and bisexual women and girls, being wrongfully denied refugee status and protection under
international human rights and refugee law.
The European Women’s Lobby (EWL) and the Refugee Women’s Resource Project at Asylum Aid (UK)
are very pleased to present this practical advocacy guide which demonstrates how both the EU
Qualifi cation and Procedures Directives should be interpreted from a gender perspective, by using
the UNHCR Guidelines on International Protection : Gender-Related Persecution within the context of
Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (2002).
A more extensive, in-depth analysis of both of these Directives on the basis of the UNHCR Gender
Guidelines (2002) is also available as a separate document for use by asylum determination offi cials,
lawyers and legal representatives of women claiming asylum, and those providing accompanying,
support, information, interpreting and guidance services. The overall aim is to provide a comprehensive
analysis on how the legal provisions contained in both Directives can be effectively interpreted
and applied to gender-based asylum claims.